Monthly Archives: August 2014

The veneration of water in 12 objects…..number eight The Gorgon carving

800px-Bath_bains_gorgoneWhen the foundations of the Grand Pump room were made in 1790, some strange pieces of a unique carving were discovered. Thought to represent a Gorgon’s head, it is said to have been sculptured by Gaulish artists around the first century AD and believed to hang over the entrance to the temple.

What is this image of?

One intretation is that the head, with its beard and thick moustache is surrounded by snakes . The Gorgon of course was killed by Perseus with the aid of Athene and significantly Minerva, part of the goddess complex of Sulis Minerva, is her Roman equivalent. This seems quite appropriate especially as the carving also appears to show wings which is commonly shown in Medusa images.

Another view

But wait a minute Medusa is female it is clearly a man!! I have another interpretation. I believe that this is a water god and the flowing serpents are not that but flowing water. I cannot clearly see any snake mouths. Certainly the face looks very Celtic, expectedly if it was carved in Gaul! So who is it? Well clearly it must be the original Celtic God of Sulis before its attachment to its female side – Minerva. Whatever, the real origin, we shall perhaps never know, but clearly the power of this image, reproduced in the shop many times is still evocative.

GUEST BLOG Bob Trubshaw’s ‘Neolithic, Anglo-Saxon or modern day -spot the difference at Alton’s Broadwells’

Bob Trubshaw will be familiar to many readers as the Heart of Albion publisher and writer of innumerable books on folklore and mythology. Having a long interest in holy wells and sacred springs, his book Holy wells of Leicestershire and Rutland back in 1990 was one of the new wave of books on the subject coming on the tide from Sacred Waters and the Source Journal. As a publisher he has been responsible for commisioning three excellent works Holy Wells in Britain, Cures and curses both by Janet Bord and the seminal and indespensable (not that the former two weren’t) English Holy Wells by Jeremy Harte. So with credentials like that it is a great honour and priveledge for Bob to write for our Summer guest spot…


Sacred waters venerated ever since people have been living in Britain.’

It’s a quote which seemingly could come from almost any book about holy wells written in the last fifty years.

Yet, as Jeremy Harte has painstakingly established in his book English Holy Wells, there is little evidence for ‘holy wells’ which predate Christianity. On the one hand is a widespread popular belief which deems all wells to have be places of pagan worship. On the other, is the scant evidence which is rarely sufficient to satisfy historians or archaeologists of ritual activities. In part this is because the written sources relating to holy wells are usually uninformative – perhaps nothing more than a passing mention – and also because there are few opportunities to excavate around wells. Even when archaeologists do, they can only make the most generalised assumptions about any surviving objects were there.

But the exceptions can be dramatic. One of the few major ‘digs’ at or near springs in recent years continues to reveal a remarkable quantity of Mesolithic flints. This is the site at Amesbury known (misleadingly) as Vespasian’s Camp and more blandly as Blick’s Mead. This riverside spring-fed pool was clearly a place where a great many generations of Mesolithic people gathered, long before the construction of Stonehenge just a short distance to the west. Indeed, it is little more than a stone’s throw from the start of the Avenue which leads from the banks of the River Avon to the megaliths themselves.

Not to be confused with a river of the same name which flows through Warwickshire and into the Severn, this Avon starts life Wiltshire and flows southwards through Hampshire into the Solent. The whole catchment area contains a wealth of Neolithic archaeology. Clearly this was a river system which acted as a major communication route in prehistoric times.

The water flowing past Blicks Mead has already come past two other major Neolithic monuments – the ‘mega-henges’ at Marden (now reduced to fragmentary banks and ditches) and Durrington Walls. And, further upstream, the source of all the water is in various springs nestling under the chalk escarpment which looks down on the Vale of Pewsey. Along the summit are several early Neolithic causewayed enclosures and various Iron Age hillforts. The Anglo-Saxon Wansdyke is the most recent of these major earthworks.

The best-preserved of the causewayed enclosures is Knapp Hill. Alongside it is the contemporaneous early Neolithic chambered long barrow now known as Adam’s Grave but formerly as ‘Woden’s bury’. The ditches and mound align with midwinter sunrise. Just a little way to the west is one of the most impressive of the hill figures in Wiltshire – the Alton Barnes white horse.

Adam’s Grave as seen from near the springs. The white horse is out of shot to the left and Knapp Hill causewayed enclosure out of shot to the right.

Alton Barnes and Alton Priors are overlooked by the chalk escarpment.  On the skyline, left to right, are the white horse, The Neolithic long barrow now known as Adam’s Grave and the well-preserved Neolithic causewayed enclosure on Knapp Hill.

Alton Barnes and Alton Priors are overlooked by the chalk escarpment. On the skyline, left to right, are the white horse, The Neolithic long barrow now known as Adam’s Grave and the well-preserved Neolithic causewayed enclosure on Knapp Hill.


The white horse, the long barrow and the causewayed enclosure are all prominent on the skyline when standing near a small wood situated between the settlements of Alton Barnes and Alton Priors. Both hamlets have small churches, one with an Anglo-Saxon nave and the other built a few centuries later but with a massive hollow yew tree in the small churchyard. Lift one of the two trapdoors in the floor of the church and you will find a ‘buried standing stone’ – although, truth be told, no one is sure why it is there or whether it ever stood upright.

Jeremy Harte standing inside the ancient and hollow yew tree in the churchyard at Alton Priors.

Jeremy Harte standing inside the ancient and hollow yew tree in the churchyard at Alton Priors.

Both churches and the nearby prehistoric monuments are all well worth visiting. But the real interest is in the small wood. Two rickety stiles provide access. Within there are two spring-fed pools, each flowing into separate streams which eventually converge – on a map they look rather like a blue tuning fork. The water in each pool is crystal clear. Several times a minute small bubbles break away from various spots at the bottom of the pools and form ripples on the surface. These are from air released as the water escapes from the local chalk aquifer into the pools, and the only visible evidence of the water flowing into the pools.


Looking downstream away from the two pools towards their confluence just out of shot to the left.

Looking downstream away from the two pools towards their confluence just out of shot to the left

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The larger of the two pools at Alton

A close-up of the clear area where bubbles rise up frequently from the chalk at the bottom.

The Anglo-Saxons knew this as the source of the Avon. The modern name ‘Alton’ was spelt Aweltun in 885. It means literally ‘the farmstead at the well or source of a river’.

I have been to many muddy patches in fields, seen plenty of dilapidated stone structures, and all such modern evidence of sites which in medieval times were considered to be holy wells. But none of them have the sheer magic of the Alton springs. Knowing that the water gently bubbling up will, in the next few days, flow past Marden, Durrington Walls and Stonehenge, adds to the enchantment.

To my knowledge there has been no archaeological activity near these two springs. Yet the presence of the causewayed enclosure and long barrow all-but confirms that Mesolithic and Neolithic people would have used this is their source of water. They too would have been aware that this was the source of the river which defines the region. In all probability there are as many buried flint tools in the vicinity of these pools as have been discovered at Amesbury. Who knows what long-gone perishable organic artefacts there might have been as well.

If you ever want to experience standing beside ‘sacred waters venerated ever since people have been living in Britain’ then visit these spring-fed pools at Alton.

Illustration by Ian Brown Illustration by Ian Brown


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One for the children or the moneylenders…The Old Red Well of Knapwell

Two counties which has poorly researched are Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire, I have been researching for volumes on these counties a number of years, and although I have yet to chase down a number of sites, may well be ready to publish next year! (Finally!)

One such site is the Old Red Well. Many years ago I searched in the dark elm woods for this site. There is something quite eerie and mysterious about this site, nestling in these woods, especially when visited in the autumn. A fact noted by this website on faeries. I didn’t see any of these but I can quite imagine them disporting themselves.

Boy, mound or money-lender?

The origin of the name Knapwell is unclear, Cnapa may be the name of the first settler, or simply ‘boy’ ‘moneylender’ or even ‘mound’ referring to the earthworks to the end of the present village.  The site is doubtless ancient and probably pre-Christian origin. Interestingly, one wonders whether the boy meaning is the correct one considering another Cambridgeshire site, the Barnwell on the outskirts of Cambridge has the same suggested origin. It may suggest that the local tribes here perhaps washed their infants in its water in a ritual fashion. There is some evidence of wells associated with ritual washing in other locales so it is possible. Knapwell is first mentioned in a will by A.D. 1000, and the settlement is noted in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Chenewelle, being held by Abbot of St Benedict of Ramsey. However, this was the estate not the well so nothing should be implied from Ramsey Abbey’s ownership.

Knapwell Cambridge

Miraculous cures

The well was the sole source of freshwater for both Boxgrove and Knapwell parishes and footpaths still lead from both communities to the well. Knapwell was also known as Little Wellesworth indicating the importance of this and The Victoria County History notes for Knapwell:

‘..named from the chalybeate Red Well, supposedly medicinal, in Boxworth Wood just east of the village.’

Like many Chalybeate springs, healing traditions are attached to it but curiously no details are recorded.

The water was well thought of well into the 20th century, for the Parish guidebook, KNAPWELL VILLAGE And The Parish Church of All Saints (1978) notes:

“Within living memory a drinking cup used to hang on the small brick arch over the spot where the spring rises.”

Current condition

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The spring produces copious but sluggish red water and is protected  by a red brick domed or arched well house similar to those of Holywell and Longstanton. When I visited the well is in fear of collapsing, and had deteriorated over a number of years, but recent pictures suggest it is in better condition. It is well worth investigating if you are in the area and below are some instructions from my forthcoming book:

“If you wish to find it park the car at the church and follow the footpath beside the church and after crossing the stream and style turn right and continue along the woods passing the information centre ( where a wooden box holds maps ) and then after a few feet one reaches a small clearing and a path leads to the right into the woods. Take this and this will lead to the well.”