Sardinia’s well temples and their votive objects and bronzetti
In my regular posts this year on the incredible prehistoric sacred spring history of Sardinia, I have referred to votive offerings the bronzetti and other votive offerings. I thought it would be worth a brief post examining these structures.
The range of votive offerings
A votive offering is an object given to a religious site for ritual purpose in hope of some intercession from a spiritual figure.
At thirty three pozzo sacro temple sites votive objects have been found out of seventy-five known sites. Of course all sites could have had such deposits and were lost as the sites were either robbed or converted to other uses. What is interested is the range of objects, some appear to have a direct link to the temple others more circumstantially linked. Many are linked to a cult usage of the site and probably represent worship at the site. Others appear are presumably linked to economic concerns, such as those upholding bread – although this could be considered sacred bread – or private or even military concerns. In many ways these objects reflect similar themes to those in British sites. However the bronzetti are the most curious.
What is a bronzetti?
Around 500 of these curious figures have been excavated. They are found in association with a number of sites across Sardinia, but particularly the Pozzo Sacro. The bronzetti are small bronze statuettes which greatly vary greatly in their appearance using being around 40 cm high but representing animals, ships and divinities. They were made via lost wax casting, a technique used by a number of ancient civilizations.
How were they found?
The bronzettis are associated with Bronze Age and early Iron Age sites, the Nuragic culture, dating from the ninth century BC and the sixth century BC, particularly the pozzo sacro and the megaron temples.
What were they for?
Unfortunately the Nuragic community left no written record so the usage of these votive objects can only be surmised. Niches are found in a number of pozzos and it is thought such figures were placed in these – similar to the placing of deities and saints in niches in modern religions. One of the most curious is that of Sa Testa, a wooden figure, perhaps the precursor of the bronzetti and similar in ways to the Dagenham idol in some ways. One particularly common bronzetti is a cloaked figure representing, it is thought, a priest. Alternatively the figure may represent a spirit of the spring.
Bulls are also found at sites. Horned creatures resonate around the prehistoric civilizations of the Mediterranean and the Nuragic communities were no different. A bull figure is associated with Predio Canopoli. The goat as noted at Sa sedda sos carros was clearly a sacred animal and indeed bronzetti showing a lamb being carried on a person’s back such as Santa Vittoria or lead on a leash at Serra Niedda do indicate animals being prepared for slaughter. These finds appear to link to the idea of animal sacrifice and indeed burnt bone fragments have been found at a number of Nuragic pozzo sacro sites.
Ships laden with soldiers are widely found as bronzetti figures and may have been given to ask for success in local conflicts or otherwise may represent the passing of the congregation into a watery afterlife. Perhaps the most curious is the finding of weapons and everyday objects. Weapons may have been deposited like those found in British sacred sites such as those inserted into the top of Su Tempiesu coping stones. However, the finding of some objects is more problematic. Such as stone hammers. Were they accidentally dropped by the masons of the well or given there to say thanks and offer protection to the structure? It is curiosities like this which make Sardinia’s sacred spring sites a fascinating subject.
Some excellent photos on this site and brilliant information on Sardinia generally http://www.neroargento.com/page_galle/bronzetti_gallery.htm