The ancient and healing wells of Cuffley and Northaw part one – The King’s Well

The most noted of these was the King’s Well. This was an early minor  spa, which was associated at first with James I, who took its waters whilst at Theobald’s Palace. It is said that he had made a number of visits to take the waters from there and became to popularise it.

However, it was granted royal name from Charles II in 1660.  Scots pines were planted at the site in the King’s honour.  It is believed that many wealthy gout sufferers built themselves mansions along Cooper’s Lane such as the 1668 Northaw Place and this resulted in Cuffley’s development. The well continued to be popular but perhaps not fully developed for the next three hundred years. It is recorded that by 1850 however, the well had long fallen into disuse

Certainly by the time of Septimus Sutherland’s 1915 Old London’s Spas, Baths and Wells  work:

“The spring was situated in the valley at Lower Cuffley, on the way to Cheshunt, but cannot now be easily traced.”

A few details are recorded of its structure. Stanley Foord in his 1910 Springs, Streams, and Spas of London notes of  “The low wall” and there is record of marble fountain head  was erected there. Foord continues to say of the low wall.

“which enclosed it has long since gone, and the spring itself, by subsoil draining around it, can now with difficulty be traced.”

I did think that this marble structure may still exist buried at the locale, but sadly, but back in the 1990s a field walk to this remote location revealed nothing. However, it is possible that the site I was surveying and that marked on the maps until 1951 was not the correct site. This is emphasised by a brief note by Brian Warren in the Potters Bar and district historical society newsletter of September 2001 who explored the facts behind its location. He stated that:

“The key map, included with the 1807 Northaw Enclosure Award indicated there were two wells, the first was ‘The King’s Well’ near the brick kilns on “Northaw Common. Secondly the Warren Allotment contained the medicinal spring called Northaw Wells. The ma sbpwed the Northaw wells to be north-east of the brickfield. However, the Drury and Andrews map of Hertfordshre 1766 and a map of Northaw common by Thomas Baskerfield c1700 showed the medical waters to be due east of the brickfields From this evidence one can see that the Ordnance survey had marked the Northaw Wells as the King’s well. Further evidence to support this conclusion is to be found in Mr Binyon’s Notebook (mid 19th century) where he noted the King’s Well ‘in a bottom’ (cf Carbone Bottom, Home wood), the ordnance survey’s position was halfway up a hill.”

This suggests that the site marked on the OS map is erroneous. It does mark a mineral spring the Northaw one. This I missed in my original gazetteer but in my defence so does Foord and Sutherland who  call it Northaw Water and Northaw Spring. However it is mentioned in the Comprehensive gazetteer of England and Wales of 1894-5 as Northall which states:

“Mineral spring is at Cuffley, and another mineral spring was on Northaw Common, now enclosed, but has been choked up.”

Sadly although one could hope that a misplacement may result in some relics of the King’s Well surviving. Gerald Millington in his 1975 Cuffley with Northaw suggests that:

“a comparison with the modern ordnance survey map places the well in the ground of the present day pumping station.”

A very likely location of course, which is nearer to Well’s Farm and sadly one which would have obliterated any remains.

Of the wells curative properties, Dr. Monro in his 1770 Treatise on Mineral Waters speaks of analyses made by Dr. Rutty at Dublin of this and of the Barnet spring. He notes that there was not much difference between them but the latter was the stronger tasted of the two ; neither of them were very powerful. A list of cures has noted survived but it is suggested that gout could be eased by drinking it.

Its water was said to be a saline chalybeate which is surprising if it has been used as a mains water supply. Older residents (in the 1950s)  remember that it was poor for making tea. For when the hot water was added the clear water became inky. This was due to the iron in the water reacting with the  tannin.  Foord (1910) states that:

“The Northaw water must have contained a considerable quantity of iron, as a favourite diversion of the inhabitants was to induce strangers to make tea with it. Though perfectly colourless, as soon as the boiling water was poured on the tea the iron combined with the tannin, and formed a kind of ink — as much to the astonishment of the tea-makers as to the delight of the practical jokers.”

Its unfortunate that no relic of this site or rather sites survive. One wonders what happened to that marble fountain head!

About pixyledpublications

Currently researching calendar customs and folklore of Nottinghamshire

Posted on May 19, 2021, in Hertfordshire and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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