A Staffordshire field trip the sulphur springs of Codsall

As part of my research for the forthcoming Holy wells and healings springs of Staffordshire I sought out the existence of two sulphurous wells in the Parish of Codsall. The first of these was called the Brimstone Well a wonderfully evocatively named site. However despite some early sketches it appears to be largely forgotten. One illustration shows a circular rough stone well head among leafy foliage in the William Salt Collection. An account locates it as:

“Halfway up the road between Wheatstone Park and Pendrell Hall is a sulphur spring – the medical properties of the water being noted in Plot’s ‘Natural History of Staffordshire’ (1898)…Sometimes the water oozes through the tarmac surface of the road.”

There did not appear to be any well head matching the description between the two locations, although there was a rush lined pool close by. Enquires made in the hamlet of Codsall Wood failed to locate the site and apparently it has been lost. I traversed the area for some time up and down the lanes and concluded that.

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The other is more famed, being the Leper’s Well by comparison it was easy to locate, especially as I had the company of Kate Gomez author of the excellent Little Book of Staffordshire and Lichfield Lore blog. This was another site according to Plot (1696) which is:

“sated with sulphurous particles; for it always emits a sulphurous smell: and in winter, and sometimes against rain, the odour is so strong, that, with the advantage of the wind, one may smell it now and then at least 23 yards off. Moreover, so volatile is it, and so little restrained, that when set over the fire, it flies away so fast, that the water quickly loses its smell.”                       

Plot (1696) continues:

“In ancient times, when leprosies were frequent, this water was accounted a sovereign remedy for such as were troubled with that foul distemper; and for whose better accommodation there was a house built near it, which retains to this day the name of the Leper House. This water is in use at present against scabs and itch, both in man and beast, and purges both by ‘siege and urine. It not only rakes the body within, but most effectually drives forth all ill humours, and sometimes it vomits, according to the constitutions of the patients, who commonly drink about three quarts at a time. Less, scarce works except by vomit, where it meets with weak stomachs.”               

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This Leper House now a small farm still exists a few yards above the well on the other side of the road. Plot also notes continues to note that the inhabitants hereabout brew their drink with this water, especially at that which they call the Brimstone Alehouse; and boil their meat with it. Upon which it is observed, that none of them are ever troubled either with scabs or itch, or such like cuticular diseases.

William Pitt in his 1817 A Topographical History of Staffordshire notes that the spring arose, up through the hollow stump of a tree, and runs down the road, leaving a yellowness on the moss resembling flour of brimstone: in warm dry weather it emits a sulphurous exhalation. However, this is clearly not the Leper well but if the sketch in the Salt collection is to be believed the Sulphur well. It was also noted that well dressing seems to have been customary in the area, however which wells and when is unclear not when it ceased. The well is a keyhole shaped stone lined well now enclosed by a fence for safety reasons. A large ash tree found over the well in the 1990s appears to have been felled probably because its roots were damaging the fabric or generally unsafe. The water is covered with thick duckweed but when disturbed there is a clear smell of sulphur. Around four steps can be traced on the east side of the well and it is probably considering the size that the well was designed for bodily immersion. This would of course link with the idea of its use by lepers. The only disadvantage is the barbed wire. I jumped over for a closer look and tore my trousers but that was preferable to being as pixy led as I was finding the Brimstone well.

About pixyledpublications

Currently researching calendar customs and folklore of Nottinghamshire

Posted on January 19, 2018, in Staffordshire and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 4 Comments.

  1. You have been busy!This sounds a very potent well, torn trousers you may have but you won’t get any foul distempers, Interesting that the Leper House still remains too,

  2. We have recently purchased Leper House and would welcome any information on the house or well. We have a well at the front of the property that we would like to learn more about.

    Francesca and David Thompson

    • Hi thanks for your message. It is an interesting property – rumour being it was a leper house/colony although I’ve never found anything to 100% support that view. What is interesting to support the view however is there are plenty of sulphur springs in England but this is the only one so associated. What water is the well on your property? I know a couple of local historians who may be able to help locate materials too by the way.

    • Hi apologies I thought I’d replied to your message. I’ll look through my notes although to be honest there isn’t a great deal known. The association of leprosy with a spring is very unusual in England although sulphur springs such as this one are not rare indeed they can be locally common. The further connection between the spring and the house is particularly rare suggesting if the connection is genuine to be medieval in origin. The obvious question which came first the well or the house with this name. I’d be interesting to hear about what the well in the front of the property is like. As you see from my post I too have an interesting well under my house and finding firm details is difficult!

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